Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer at Cisco Systems
Thanks, Chuck. We started the fiscal year with a strong Q1, reflecting solid execution and disciplined management. We had record total revenue of $13.6 billion, exceeding the high end of our guidance range, driven by product shipment levels above our expectations and continued improvements in component supply.
Non-GAAP operating margin was 31.8%, down 150 basis points in-line with our guidance range, primarily driven by higher component costs as well as logistics costs related to supply constraints. Non-GAAP net income was $3.5 billion, up 2%, and non-GAAP EPS was $0.86, up 5% exceeding the high end of our guidance range.
Looking at our Q1 revenue in more detail. Total product revenue was $10.2 billion, up 8%, and service revenue was flat at $3.4 billion. Within product revenue secure agile networks performed well, up 12%. Switching revenue grew grew with double-digit growth in campus switching, driven by growth in our Catalyst 9000 and Meraki offerings.
Our data center switching modestly declined, we saw solid growth in our Nexus 9000 offering. Enterprise routing declined primarily from the product transition to our Catalyst 8000 series routers along with constrained supply. Wireless had very strong double-digit growth driven primarily by our Wi-Fi 6 products and Meraki wireless offerings. Internet for the future was down 5%, driven by declines in cable, optical and edge. We saw growth in our Cisco 8000 offering and strong double-digit growth in web scale. Collaboration was down 2%, driven by a decline in meetings, partially offset by growth in calling.
End-to-end security was up 9%, driven by unified threat management and Zero Trust offerings. Our Zero Trust portfolio continues to perform well, driven by strong performance in our Duo offering. Optimized application experiences was up 7%, driven by double-digit growth in our SaaS-based offering, ThousandEyes. We continue to make progress on our transformation metrics as we shift our business to more software and subscriptions. We saw strong performance in our ARR of $23.2 billion, which increased 7% with product ARR growth of 12%.
Total software revenue was $3.9 billion, an increase of 5%, with software subscription revenue up 11%. 85% of the software revenue was subscription based, which is up 5 percentage points year-over-year. We continue to have over $2 billion of software orders in our product backlog. Total subscription revenue was $5.9 billion, an increase of 6%. Total subscription revenue represented 43% of Cisco's total revenue. And RPO was $30.9 billion, up 3%. Product RPO increased 5%, and service RPO increased 1%. Total short-term RPO grew to $16.4 billion.
In terms of orders in Q1, we had the second highest Q1 orders in our history. Although product orders were down 14% for the quarter, it's important to keep in mind that, that compare against 34% growth from a year ago. We continue to have low cancellation rates, which remain below pre-pandemic levels.
Looking at our geographic segments year-on-year. The Americas was down 10%, EMEA was down 23% and APJC down 10%. In our customer markets, service provider was down 23%, commercial was down 14%, enterprise was down 13%, and public sector was down 7%. Total non-GAAP gross margin came in within our guidance range at 63%, down 150 basis points year-over-year. Product gross margin was 61%, down 280 basis points, and service gross margin was 68.8%, up 230 basis points.
In our product gross margin, the decrease was primarily driven by both component costs, as well as higher freight and logistics costs related to supply constraints. This was partially offset by strong positive pricing impact as a result of the actions we took in the prior year, as well as some benefit from product mix. Backlog levels for both our hardware and software continue to far exceed historical levels. As we navigated a complex supply environment, we were able to increase our shipments this quarter, resulting in about a 10% decrease in total backlog sequentially, which remains at the second highest level we've seen.
Just a reminder, backlog is not included as part of our $30.9 billion in remaining performance obligations. Combined, our significant backlog and RPO continued to provide great visibility to our top line. Shifting to the balance sheet, we ended Q1 with total cash, cash equivalents and investments of $19.8 billion. Operating cash flow for the quarter was $4 billion, up 16% year-over-year.
In capital allocation, we returned $2.1 billion to shareholders during the quarter. That was comprised of $1.6 billion for our quarterly cash dividend and approximately $500 million of share repurchases. All of this is in line with our long-term objective of returning a minimum of 50% of free cash flow annually to our shareholders. We also ended the quarter with $14.7 billion in stock repurchase authorizations.
To summarize, we executed well in Q1 in a highly complex environment, delivering better-than-expected top line growth and non-GAAP profitability. We continue to make progress on our business model shift to more recurring revenue while making strategic investments in innovation to capitalize on our significant growth opportunities. Consistent with that objective, we announced some restructuring actions focused on prioritizing our investments across our highest growth opportunities and rightsizing our real estate footprint to help maximize long-term value for our shareholders.
Turning to our financial guidance for Q2. We expect revenue growth to be in the range of 4.5% to 6.5%. We anticipate non-GAAP gross margins to be in the range of 63% to 64%. Our non-GAAP operating margin is expected to be in the range of 31.5% to 32.5%. And non-GAAP earnings per share is expected to range from $0.84 to $0.86.
For fiscal year 2023, our guidance is, we are raising our expectations for revenue growth to be in the range of 4.5% to 6.5% year-on-year, this is up from the prior range of 4% to 6% growth. Non-GAAP earnings per share guidance is expected to range from $3.51 to $3.58, also up 4.5% to 6.5% year-on-year. In both our Q2 and full year guidance, we're assuming a non-GAAP effective tax rate of 19%. Our Q2 guidance reflects the increased visibility we have from our significant backlog and the RPO we have built up with our business model transformation, as well as the easing of supply constraints. The full year guidance rolls forward our Q1 overperformance with a prudent view of the remainder of the year.
I'll now turn it back to Marilyn, so we can move into the Q&A.