Nuance Communications Company Profile (NASDAQ:NUAN)

About Nuance Communications (NUAN)

Nuance Communications logoNuance Communications, Inc. is a provider of voice recognition and natural language understanding solutions. The Company's segments include Healthcare, Mobile, Enterprise and Imaging. The Healthcare segment provides clinical speech and clinical language understanding solutions. The solutions for the Healthcare segment include transcription solutions, Dragon Medical, and clinical document improvement (CDI) and coding solutions. Its Mobile segment provides a portfolio of specialized virtual assistants and connected services. The Enterprise segment provides automated customer solutions and services. The solutions for the Enterprise segment include On-Premise solutions and services, and On-Demand multichannel cloud. The Imaging segment provides software solutions that help professionals and organizations to gain control of their document and information processes. Imaging segment include multi-function printer (MFP) scan automation solutions and MFP Print automation solutions.

Industry, Sector and Symbol:
  • Sector: Computer and Technology
  • Industry: Application Software
  • Sub-Industry: Application Software
  • Exchange: NASDAQ
  • Symbol: NUAN
  • CUSIP: 67020Y10
Key Metrics:
  • Previous Close: $17.57
  • 50 Day Moving Average: $16.86
  • 200 Day Moving Average: $15.78
  • 52-Week Range: $13.44 - $18.73
  • Trailing P/E Ratio: N/A
  • Foreward P/E Ratio: 10.52
  • P/E Growth: 2.51
  • Market Cap: $5.12B
  • Outstanding Shares: 291,563,000
  • Beta: 0.81
  • Net Margins: -1.24%
  • Return on Equity: 15.22%
  • Return on Assets: 5.02%
  • Debt-to-Equity Ratio: 1.02%
  • Current Ratio: 0.93%
  • Quick Ratio: 0.93%

Analyst Ratings

Consensus Ratings for Nuance Communications (NASDAQ:NUAN) (?)
Ratings Breakdown: 1 Hold Rating, 6 Buy Ratings, 1 Strong Buy Rating
Consensus Rating:Buy (Score: 3.00)
Consensus Price Target: $22.83 (29.96% upside)

Analysts' Ratings History for Nuance Communications (NASDAQ:NUAN)
DateFirmActionRatingPrice TargetImpact on Share PriceDetails
2/9/2017Oppenheimer Holdings Inc.Reiterated RatingOutperform$26.00N/AView Rating Details
2/8/2017Barclays PLCBoost Price TargetOverweight$19.00 -> $20.00N/AView Rating Details
2/8/2017Citigroup IncReiterated RatingOutperformN/AView Rating Details
2/3/2017Canaccord GenuityReiterated RatingBuy$20.00N/AView Rating Details
11/18/2016Deutsche Bank AGReiterated RatingBuy$25.00N/AView Rating Details
11/18/2016Raymond James Financial, Inc.UpgradeOutperform -> Strong-Buy$24.00N/AView Rating Details
5/12/2016Needham & Company LLCReiterated RatingHoldN/AView Rating Details
5/11/2016Leerink SwannLower Price TargetOutperform$23.00 -> $22.00N/AView Rating Details
3/14/2016Craig HallumBoost Price TargetBuy$26.00N/AView Rating Details
1/15/2016Standpoint ResearchUpgradeHold -> Buy$22.00N/AView Rating Details
11/17/2015FBR & CoBoost Price TargetMarket Perform$20.00 -> $21.00N/AView Rating Details
(Data available from 4/24/2015 forward)


Earnings History for Nuance Communications (NASDAQ:NUAN)
Earnings by Quarter for Nuance Communications (NASDAQ:NUAN)
Earnings History by Quarter for Nuance Communications (NASDAQ:NUAN)
DateQuarterConsensus EstimateActual EPSRevenue EstimateActual RevenueRelease LinkConference CallDetails
2/7/2017Q117$0.35$0.35$490.37 million$487.70 millionViewListenView Earnings Details
11/17/2016Q416$0.39$0.41$505.10 million$512.40 millionViewListenView Earnings Details
8/8/2016Q316$0.37$0.38$489.54 million$484.90 millionViewListenView Earnings Details
5/10/2016Q216$0.35$0.38$491.14 million$487.40 millionViewListenView Earnings Details
2/9/2016Q116$0.33$0.36$491.46 million$486.10 millionViewListenView Earnings Details
11/16/2015Q415$0.35$0.41$507.84 million$513.30 millionViewListenView Earnings Details
8/6/2015Q315$0.29$0.32$480.36 million$488.70 millionViewListenView Earnings Details
5/7/2015Q215$0.24$0.30$481.00 million$488.10 millionViewListenView Earnings Details
2/5/2015Q115$0.22$0.25$486.87 million$489.00 millionViewListenView Earnings Details
11/24/2014Q414$0.27$0.33$510.80 million$502.30 millionViewListenView Earnings Details
8/11/2014Q314$0.13$0.10$498.56 million$475.50 millionViewListenView Earnings Details
5/8/2014Q214$0.23$0.28$484.17 million$475.70 millionViewListenView Earnings Details
11/25/2013Q4$0.29$0.30$489.56 million$472.20 millionViewListenView Earnings Details
8/6/2013Q3 2013$0.32$0.34$487.64 million$490.80 millionViewListenView Earnings Details
4/30/2013Q2 2013$0.40$0.34$516.53 million$484.00 millionViewN/AView Earnings Details
2/7/2013Q1 2013$0.44$0.35$492.42 million$492.40 millionViewListenView Earnings Details
11/19/2012Q412$0.48$0.51$496.91 million$468.80 millionViewN/AView Earnings Details
8/7/2012$0.39$0.45ViewN/AView Earnings Details
5/10/2012$0.42$0.43ViewN/AView Earnings Details
2/9/2012$0.36$0.34ViewN/AView Earnings Details
11/22/2011$0.41$0.42ViewN/AView Earnings Details
8/9/2011$0.34$0.35ViewN/AView Earnings Details
5/10/2011$0.31$0.32ViewN/AView Earnings Details
2/9/2011$0.31$0.28ViewN/AView Earnings Details
(Data available from 1/1/2011 forward)


Earnings Estimates for Nuance Communications (NASDAQ:NUAN)
Current Year EPS Consensus Estimate: $1.58 EPS
Next Year EPS Consensus Estimate: $1.67 EPS


Dividend History for Nuance Communications (NASDAQ:NUAN)
No dividend announcements for this company have been tracked by

Insider Trades

Insider Trading and Institutional Ownership History for Nuance Communications (NASDAQ:NUAN)
Insider Ownership Percentage: 1.67%
Institutional Ownership Percentage: 82.96%
Insider Trades by Quarter for Nuance Communications (NASDAQ:NUAN)
Institutional Ownership by Quarter for Nuance Communications (NASDAQ:NUAN)
Insider Trades by Quarter for Nuance Communications (NASDAQ:NUAN)
Transaction DateInsider NameTitleBuy/SellNumber of SharesAverage Share PriceTotal TransactionDetails
4/19/2017Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell2,000$17.01$34,020.00View SEC Filing  
4/5/2017Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell9,131$16.75$152,944.25View SEC Filing  
3/13/2017Robert C SchasslerEVPSell35,000$17.04$596,400.00View SEC Filing  
2/13/2017Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell6,000$17.00$102,000.00View SEC Filing  
1/3/2017Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell6,000$14.93$89,580.00View SEC Filing  
1/3/2017Katherine A MartinDirectorSell10,000$14.90$149,000.00View SEC Filing  
12/22/2016Daniel David TempestaInsiderSell6,000$15.11$90,660.00View SEC Filing  
12/19/2016Kenneth M SiegelEVPSell3,120$15.06$46,987.20View SEC Filing  
11/28/2016Kenneth M SiegelEVPSell6,243$16.72$104,382.96View SEC Filing  
11/21/2016Katherine A MartinDirectorSell10,000$16.52$165,200.00View SEC Filing  
11/1/2016Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell4,000$13.96$55,840.00View SEC Filing  
10/3/2016Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell4,000$14.45$57,800.00View SEC Filing  
8/1/2016Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell6,000$16.03$96,180.00View SEC Filing  
7/1/2016Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell6,000$15.59$93,540.00View SEC Filing  
6/8/2016Katherine A MartinDirectorSell10,000$17.23$172,300.00View SEC Filing  
6/1/2016Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell8,000$16.78$134,240.00View SEC Filing  
5/2/2016Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell8,000$17.02$136,160.00View SEC Filing  
3/17/2016Daniel David TempestaEVPSell9,256$19.50$180,492.00View SEC Filing  
3/17/2016Mark R LaretDirectorSell14,000$19.55$273,700.00View SEC Filing  
3/17/2016Paul RicciCEOSell148,684$19.52$2,902,311.68View SEC Filing  
3/16/2016Carl C IcahnMajor ShareholderSell4,400,000$19.25$84,700,000.00View SEC Filing  
3/9/2016Carl C IcahnMajor ShareholderSell26,315,790$19.00$500,000,010.00View SEC Filing  
3/2/2016William T RobbinsEVPSell30,000$20.30$609,000.00View SEC Filing  
3/1/2016Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell20,000$19.84$396,800.00View SEC Filing  
2/1/2016Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell8,000$17.40$139,200.00View SEC Filing  
1/4/2016Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell8,000$19.55$156,400.00View SEC Filing  
12/24/2015Paul RicciCEOSell150,000$20.25$3,037,500.00View SEC Filing  
12/15/2015Daniel David TempestaEVPSell23,602$20.01$472,276.02View SEC Filing  
12/7/2015Paul RicciCEOSell771,852$21.35$16,479,040.20View SEC Filing  
12/1/2015Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell12,000$21.02$252,240.00View SEC Filing  
11/17/2015Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell4,000$20.00$80,000.00View SEC Filing  
11/2/2015Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell8,000$17.00$136,000.00View SEC Filing  
10/7/2015Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell3,603$17.03$61,359.09View SEC Filing  
10/2/2015Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell6,000$16.02$96,120.00View SEC Filing  
9/16/2015Katherine A MartinDirectorSell10,000$17.34$173,400.00View SEC Filing  
9/15/2015Paul RicciCEOSell200,000$17.37$3,474,000.00View SEC Filing  
9/1/2015Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell6,000$16.23$97,380.00View SEC Filing  
9/1/2015Daniel David TempestaEVPSell1,923$16.11$30,979.53View SEC Filing  
8/18/2015Robert J. FrankenbergDirectorSell4,162$18.26$75,998.12View SEC Filing  
7/7/2015Paul RicciCEOSell541,700$16.65$9,019,305.00View SEC Filing  
7/6/2015Paul RicciCEOSell258,300$16.98$4,385,934.00View SEC Filing  
7/1/2015Daniel David TempestaCAOSell3,500$17.25$60,375.00View SEC Filing  
7/1/2015Thomas L BeaudoinVPSell4,500$17.22$77,490.00View SEC Filing  
6/3/2015Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell8,000$16.99$135,920.00View SEC Filing  
4/1/2015Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell1,500$14.32$21,480.00View SEC Filing  
3/24/2015William T RobbinsEVPSell2,500$14.15$35,375.00View SEC Filing  
2/20/2015Paul RicciCEOSell250,000$14.10$3,525,000.00View SEC Filing  
1/2/2015Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell1,500$14.26$21,390.00View SEC Filing  
11/3/2014Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell2,500$15.45$38,625.00View SEC Filing  
11/3/2014Daniel David TempestaCAOSell1,000$15.46$15,460.00View SEC Filing  
10/1/2014Daniel David TempestaCAOSell1,000$15.00$15,000.00View SEC Filing  
10/1/2014Thomas L BeaudoinVPSell5,000$15.00$75,000.00View SEC Filing  
8/1/2014Daniel David TempestaCAOSell2,000$17.77$35,540.00View SEC Filing  
8/1/2014Thomas L BeaudoinVPSell5,000$17.81$89,050.00View SEC Filing  
7/1/2014Daniel David TempestaCAOSell3,000$18.20$54,600.00View SEC Filing  
7/1/2014Thomas L BeaudoinVPSell5,000$18.07$90,350.00View SEC Filing  
6/16/2014Daniel David TempestaCAOSell7,500$18.56$139,200.00View SEC Filing  
5/27/2014Katherine A MartinDirectorSell15,000$15.85$237,750.00View SEC Filing  
3/20/2014Daniel David TempestaCAOSell2,000$16.51$33,020.00View SEC Filing  
3/19/2014Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell2,500$16.05$40,125.00View SEC Filing  
3/18/2014Patrick HackettDirectorSell11,657$16.03$186,861.71View SEC Filing  
2/3/2014Daniel David TempestaCAOSell1,000$15.35$15,350.00View SEC Filing  
2/3/2014Thomas BeaudoinVPSell5,000$15.31$76,550.00View SEC Filing  
1/2/2014Daniel David TempestaCAOSell1,000$15.24$15,240.00View SEC Filing  
1/2/2014Thomas BeaudoinVPSell5,000$15.24$76,200.00View SEC Filing  
12/23/2013Daniel David TempestaCAOSell3,500$15.00$52,500.00View SEC Filing  
12/16/2013Carl Icahnmajor shareholderBuy50,900$14.20$722,780.00View SEC Filing  
12/11/2013Carl Icahnmajor shareholderBuy7,200$14.15$101,880.00View SEC Filing  
12/6/2013Carl Icahnmajor shareholderBuy220,900$14.19$3,134,571.00View SEC Filing  
12/6/2013Daniel David TempestaCAOSell6,183$14.20$87,798.60View SEC Filing  
12/5/2013Robert FrankenbergDirectorSell5,703$14.20$80,982.60View SEC Filing  
12/4/2013Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell10,494$13.54$142,088.76View SEC Filing  
12/2/2013Carl Icahnmajor shareholderBuy1,812,200$13.67$24,772,774.00View SEC Filing  
11/29/2013Adam Bruce BowdenVPSell8,000$13.51$108,080.00View SEC Filing  
9/24/2013Paul RicciCEOSell250,000$19.00$4,750,000.00View SEC Filing  
9/6/2013William Kenneth NelsonVPSell5,200$19.50$101,400.00View SEC Filing  
9/3/2013Thomas BeaudoinVPSell5,000$19.30$96,500.00View SEC Filing  
8/9/2013Janet DillioneVPSell63,430$19.16$1,215,318.80View SEC Filing  
8/1/2013Thomas L BeaudoinVPSell5,000$19.03$95,150.00View SEC Filing  
7/5/2013Thomas L BeaudoinVPSell5,000$19.00$95,000.00View SEC Filing  
7/1/2013Paul RicciCEOSell233,334$18.70$4,363,345.80View SEC Filing  
6/4/2013Paul RicciCEOSell233,333$18.70$4,363,327.10View SEC Filing  
6/3/2013Thomas L BeaudoinVPSell5,000$19.11$95,550.00View SEC Filing  
5/24/2013Mark MyersDirectorSell4,000$19.08$76,320.00View SEC Filing  
5/23/2013Katherine A MartinDirectorSell15,000$19.27$289,050.00View SEC Filing  
5/8/2013Robert TeresiDirectorSell10,000$19.17$191,700.00View SEC Filing  
5/7/2013Mark R LaretDirectorSell5,000$19.50$97,500.00View SEC Filing  
12/26/2012Paul RicciCEOSell7,500$22.20$166,500.00View SEC Filing  
9/6/2012Steven G ChambersInsiderSell36,831$23.67$871,789.77View SEC Filing  
8/20/2012Thomas L BeaudoinVPSell4,000$23.95$95,800.00View SEC Filing  
(Data available from 1/1/2013 forward)


Headline Trends for Nuance Communications (NASDAQ:NUAN)
Latest Headlines for Nuance Communications (NASDAQ:NUAN)
DateHeadline logoZacks: Analysts Anticipate Nuance Communications Inc. (NUAN) to Announce $0.25 EPS - April 24 at 10:11 AM logoFavorable Press Coverage Likely to Impact Nuance Communications (NUAN) Stock Price - April 23 at 10:44 PM logoAdam Bruce Bowden Sells 2,000 Shares of Nuance Communications Inc. (NUAN) Stock - April 21 at 9:30 PM logoNuance Communications, Inc. – Value Analysis (NASDAQ:NUAN) : April 21, 2017 - April 21 at 6:46 PM logoNuance Communications (NUAN) Receives Media Impact Rating of -0.04 - April 20 at 5:51 PM logoNuance Communications, Inc. breached its 50 day moving average in a Bullish Manner : NUAN-US : April 20, 2017 - April 20 at 9:22 AM logoAVIANCE and NUANCE Announce Reseller Agreement for Central Learning - April 18 at 10:05 AM logoNuance Communications Inc. (NUAN) Given Consensus Rating of "Buy" by Analysts - April 17 at 10:35 PM logoNuance Communications (NUAN) Getting Somewhat Favorable Press Coverage, Study Finds - April 17 at 10:16 PM logoNuance Communications Inc. (NUAN) Upgraded to Hold at Zacks Investment Research - April 14 at 10:08 AM logoNuance Communications Inc. (NUAN) Short Interest Up 81.4% in March - April 13 at 7:17 AM logoETFs with exposure to Nuance Communications, Inc. : April 7, 2017 - April 7 at 7:20 PM logoNuance Communications, Inc. breached its 50 day moving average in a Bearish Manner : NUAN-US : April 5, 2017 - April 7 at 11:36 AM logoNuance Communications Inc. (NUAN) Given Average Rating of "Buy" by Analysts - March 23 at 12:37 PM logoNuance and Epic Collaborate to Deliver Computer-Assisted Physician Documentation - March 22 at 9:12 AM logoNUANCE COMMUNICATIONS, INC. Files SEC form 8-K, Entry into a Material Definitive Agreement, Creation of a Direct Fina - March 17 at 7:05 PM logoInsider Selling: Nuance Communications Inc. (NUAN) EVP Sells 35,000 Shares of Stock - March 15 at 7:45 PM logoNuance Prices $350 Million Offering of 1.25% Senior Convertible Notes - March 14 at 10:39 AM logo4:01 am Nuance Communications prices offering of $350 mln of its 1.25% senior convertible notes due 2025 - March 14 at 10:39 AM logoNuance sets $350M debt offering to help buyback - Seeking Alpha - March 13 at 6:36 PM logoNuance Communications (NUAN) Plans to Offer $350M of Senior Convertible Notes due 2025 - March 13 at 10:02 AM logoBRIEF-Nuance announces proposed $350 mln offering of notes due 2025 - March 13 at 10:02 AM logoNuance Announces Proposed $350 Million Offering of Senior Convertible Notes due 2025 - March 13 at 10:02 AM logo7:47 am Nuance Communications announces a $350 mln offering of senior convertible notes due 2025 in a private placement - March 13 at 10:02 AM logoPaperport Takes Me Closer To The Paperless Medical Office - March 6 at 6:22 PM logoDomino’s Revolutionizes Digital Ordering with DRU Assist, its Virtual Assistant Powered by Nuance - March 1 at 10:28 AM logoResearch Reports Coverage on Application Software Stocks -- Fortinet, Nuance Communications, Adobe Systems, and Allscripts Healthcare Solutions - February 22 at 8:58 AM logoAnnouncing Nuance Loop: AI and Data-Analytics Marketing Platform for Mobile Operators - February 22 at 8:57 AM logoEHR Study Finds Healthcare Leaders Plan to Adopt Enhancing ... - Business Wire (press release) - February 21 at 5:57 PM logoResearch Reports Coverage on Application Software Stocks ... - PR Newswire (press release) - February 21 at 5:57 PM logoNuance Communications (NASDAQ: NUAN) has been a disappointment for shareholders in recent years. - Seeking Alpha - February 21 at 5:57 PM logoEHR Study Finds Healthcare Leaders Plan to Adopt Enhancing Technologies to Improve Clinician Satisfaction - February 20 at 9:47 AM logoNuance Receives #1 Combined Rating among Enterprise Intelligent Assistant Vendors in Newly-Published Opus Research Report - February 16 at 6:27 PM logoNUANCE COMMUNICATIONS, INC. Financials - February 14 at 10:04 PM logoNuance: Turning The Ship - Ever So Slowly - Seeking Alpha - February 14 at 1:09 AM logoInvestors: Option reports for Akamai Technologies, Cognizant Technology Solutions, Nuance Communications, Parsley Energy Inc and Energy Select Sector - February 9 at 7:59 PM


Frequently Asked Questions for Nuance Communications (NASDAQ:NUAN)

What is Nuance Communications' stock symbol?

Nuance Communications trades on the NASDAQ under the ticker symbol "NUAN."

How were Nuance Communications' earnings last quarter?

Nuance Communications Inc. (NASDAQ:NUAN) posted its quarterly earnings data on Tuesday, February, 7th. The company reported $0.35 EPS for the quarter, hitting the Zacks' consensus estimate of $0.35. The company earned $487.70 million during the quarter, compared to the consensus estimate of $490.37 million. Nuance Communications had a negative net margin of 1.24% and a positive return on equity of 15.22%. The company's quarterly revenue was up .2% on a year-over-year basis. During the same period in the prior year, the business posted $0.36 EPS.

When will Nuance Communications make its next earnings announcement?

Nuance Communications is scheduled to release their next quarterly earnings announcement on Monday, May, 8th 2017.

What guidance has Nuance Communications issued on next quarter's earnings?

Nuance Communications issued an update on its FY17 earnings guidance on Tuesday, February, 7th. The company provided earnings per share guidance of $1.53-1.63 for the period, compared to the Thomson Reuters consensus EPS estimate of $1.59. The company issued revenue guidance of $2.02-2.07 billion, compared to the consensus revenue estimate of $2.04 billion.Nuance Communications also updated its Q2 guidance to $0.36-0.40 EPS.

Where is Nuance Communications' stock going? Where will Nuance Communications' stock price be in 2017?

8 brokers have issued 12 month target prices for Nuance Communications' stock. Their forecasts range from $20.00 to $26.00. On average, they anticipate Nuance Communications' stock price to reach $22.83 in the next year.

Are investors shorting Nuance Communications?

Nuance Communications saw a increase in short interest in March. As of March 31st, there was short interest totalling 9,435,539 shares, an increase of 81.4% from the March 15th total of 5,201,135 shares. Based on an average daily volume of 2,117,272 shares, the days-to-cover ratio is presently 4.5 days. Currently, 3.3% of the company's stock are short sold.

Who owns Nuance Communications stock?

Nuance Communications' stock is owned by a variety of of retail and institutional investors. Top institutional investors include Peregrine Capital Management LLC (0.80%), Country Trust Bank (0.33%), Bank of Montreal Can (0.23%), Gateway Investment Advisers LLC (0.12%), CWM LLC (0.05%) and Farmers & Merchants Investments Inc. (0.04%). Company insiders that own Nuance Communications stock include Adam Bruce Bowden, Carl C Icahn, Daniel David Tempesta, Katherine A Martin, Kenneth M Siegel, Mark R Laret, Paul Ricci, Robert C Schassler, Robert J Frankenberg, Thomas L Beaudoin and William T Robbins.

Who sold Nuance Communications stock? Who is selling Nuance Communications stock?

Nuance Communications' stock was sold by a variety of institutional investors in the last quarter, including Bremer Trust National Association, CWM LLC, Creative Planning and Country Trust Bank. Company insiders that have sold Nuance Communications stock in the last year include Adam Bruce Bowden, Daniel David Tempesta, Katherine A Martin, Kenneth M Siegel and Robert C Schassler.

Who bought Nuance Communications stock? Who is buying Nuance Communications stock?

Nuance Communications' stock was acquired by a variety of institutional investors in the last quarter, including Bank of Montreal Can, Peregrine Capital Management LLC, Farmers & Merchants Investments Inc., DnB Asset Management AS, Raymond James Trust N.A. and Reliance Trust Co. of Delaware.

How do I buy Nuance Communications stock?

Shares of Nuance Communications can be purchased through any online brokerage account. Popular online brokerages include Vanguard Brokerage Services, TD Ameritrade, E*TRADE, Scottrade, Fidelity and Charles Schwab.

How much does a share of Nuance Communications stock cost?

One share of Nuance Communications stock can currently be purchased for approximately $17.57.

Nuance Communications (NUAN) Chart for Monday, April, 24, 2017

This page was last updated on 4/24/2017 by Staff